This chapter is a review of research on teaching and learning online by children in ele- mentary and high schools, commonly referred to in the United States as grades K–12. This span encompasses primary and secondary levels from kindergarten to high school graduation. Online learning programs for K–12 students offer instruction and content in the form of synchronous or asynchronous Web-delivered courses, also known as vir- tual schools. The majority of the U.S. states have statewide supplemental and full-time K–12 online learning programs, and online courses are offered by schools or districts in every state (Watson, Murin, Vashaw, Gemin, & Rapp, 2011), with the most rapid growth occurring in school district-operated and blended programs. The largest pub- licly funded virtual school programs each enroll over 200,000 students, a scale afforded by the predominant asynchronous Web-based mode of delivery for K–12 distance learn- ing courses (Watson et al., 2011). As of 2007, more than 20% of postsecondary students enrolled in at least one online course (U.S. Department of Education, 2011), and in 2010 that figure had risen to 30% (Allen & Seaman, 2010). Thus far, only 1%‒2% of K–12 students have taken online courses (Watson et al., 2011). However, several states have enacted legislation requiring online courses or experience for graduation (Davis, 2011).
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Cavanaugh C.., &a, (2012). , Student achievement in elementary and high school. :
Handbook of Distance Education. 3rd ed.
Location of Research Study
Not Applicable, Not Applicable